Sack Cultivation of Indigenous Shak: Prospects in Waterlogged Southwest Bangladesh

Shamima Nasrin *

Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI), Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

Md. Abdul Mannan

Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh.

Sabiha Sultana

Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh.

Rebaka Sultana

Department of Horticulture, Sher-e Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

Md. Abdul Gaffar

National Agricultural Training Academy (NATA), Bangladesh.


Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Bangladesh.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


A study on the Prospect and profitability of Indigenous Vegetables (Kalmi, Helencha, and Malancha Shak) was conducted in Shyamnagar Upazila of Satkhira district in waterlogged conditions from September 2020 to May 2021. T0= Control (No Urea and Vermicompost), T1= Urea (%): Vermicompost (%), 50:50, T2= Urea (%): Vermicompost (%), 75:25, T3= Urea (%): Vermicompost (%), 25:75, T4= 100% Urea, and T5= 100% Vermicompost were the six treatments used in the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment. The treatments and various native marshland leafy greens differed significantly from one another. The vegetables in T2 (Urea (%): Vermicompost (%), 75:25) had the highest yield, gross and net income, and BCR, whereas the control had the lowest of all. When comparing the yields of various vegetables, Helencha Shak had the highest yield, gross and net income, and BCR, whereas Kalmi Shak had the lowest yield.

Keywords: Vegetables, sack cultivation, profitability, food crops

How to Cite

Nasrin, S., Mannan, M. A., Sultana, S., Sultana, R., Gaffar, M. A., & Shamsunnaher. (2024). Sack Cultivation of Indigenous Shak: Prospects in Waterlogged Southwest Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Food Research and Nutrition, 3(3), 439–448. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Mitra S, Yunus M. Determinants of tomato farmers efficiency in Mymensinghdistrict of Bangladesh: Data envelopment analysis approach. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2018;16(1):93– 97.

Available: 10.3329/jbau. v16i1.36487.

Karim MF, Mimura N. Impacts of climate change and sea-level rise on cyclonic storm surge floods in Bangladesh. Global Environmental Change. 2008;18(3):490–500.

The Asian Development Bank. Bangladesh: Strengthening the resilience of the water sector in Khulna to climate change. Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development & Cooperatives, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2010.

The World Bank. The cost of adapting to extreme weather events in a changing climate. World Bank, Dhaka, Bangladesh. USAID 2018 Climate Risk in Bangla; 2011.

Mirza MMQ. Climate change and extreme weather events: Can developing countries adapt? Climate Policy. 2003;3(3):233–248.

Format Situation Report. Khulna and Satkhira, Bangladesh Waterlogging – Briefing Note, Source Start Network; 2020.

Rahman MM, Akteruzzaman AK, Khan MM, Jobber A, Rahman MM. Analysis of water logging problem and its environmental effects using GIS approaches In Khulna City Of Bangladesh. Journal of Social and Economic Development; 2009.

Umeohia UE, Olapade AA. Physiological processes affecting postharvest quality of fresh fruits and vegetables. Asian Food Science Journal. 2024;23(4):1–14. Available:

Alavazo LA. Exploring the characteristics and applications of eucheuma cottonii seaweed flour in crepe production. Advances in Research. 2024;25(2):30–38. Available:

Abdul Khalil HP, Banerjee A, Saurabh CK, Tye YY, Suriani AB, Mohamed A, Karim AA, Rizal S, Paridah MT. Biodegradable films for fruits and vegetables packaging application: Preparation and properties. Food Engineering Reviews. 2018 Sep;10:139-53.

Ahmed AU, Alam M. Development of climate change scenarios with general circulation Models, in Huq S, Karim Z, Asaduzzaman M, Mahtab F (Eds.). Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change for Bangladesh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 1998;13-20.

BARC. Agroecological Database, BARC Computer Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka; 1991.

Angrish R, Toky OP, Datta KS. Biological management of water: Biodrainage. Curr. Sci. 2006;90:897.

Ghorai AK, Chowdhury H, Kundu DK, Mahapatra BS. Crop diversification in anaerobic rice field using woven and nonwoven jute fabrics based reinforced soil column. Presented in ARRW Golden Jubilee International Symposium held at Cuttack, Odisha. March 2-5 2013;224- 225.

Ghorai AK, Kundu DK, Satpathy S, Ghosh R. Crop diversification in anaerobic rice field using gunny bag reinforced soil columns. SAARC Agric. News. 2014; 8(2):7-8.

Ghorai AK, Kundu DK, Shailesh K, Shamna A. Use of gunny bags/jute fabrics in agricultural field for sustainable family farming for food, nutrition and livelihood security. In book, Editerd by Bitan Mondal, Debasish Sarkar, Siddhartha Dev Mukhopadhyay, Souvik Ghosh, Bidhan Chandra Roy and Sarthak Choudhury. Renu Publishers, New Delhi-16. 2016;107-110.

White DH, Howden SM. Climate and its effects on crop productivity and management. Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production. 2010;1:44-78.

Khan A. Evaluation of bitter gourd varieties on different methods of cultivation. Pure Appl. Biol. 2022;11.

DOI: 10.19045/bspab.2022.110007

Naafe M. Influence of pinching on growth and yield of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Pure Appl. Biol. 2022;11

DOI: 10.19045/bspab.2022.110091

Bhanwaria R, Singh B, Musarella CM. Effect of organic manure and moisture regimes on soil physiochemical properties, microbial biomass cmic: nmic: pmic turnover and yield of mustard grains in arid climate. Plants. 2022;11:722.

DOI: 10.3390/plants11060722

Rivier PA, Jamniczky D, Nemes A, Makó A, Barna G, Uzinger N, Rékási M, Farkas C. Short-term effects of compost amendments to soil on soil structure, hydraulic properties, and water regime. J. Hydrol. Hydromechanics. 2022;70:74–88.

DOI: 10.2478/johh-2022-0004

Domínguez J, Aira M, Kolbe AR, Gómez-Brandón M, Pérez-Losada M. Changes in the composition and function of bacterial communities during vermicomposting may explain beneficial properties of vermicompost. Sci. Rep. 2019;9:9657.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-46018-w

Hu X, Zhang T, Tian G, Zhang L, Bian B. Pilot-scale vermicomposting of sewage sludge mixed with mature vermicompost using earthworm reactor of frame composite structure. Sci. Total Environ. 2021;767.

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144217

Arutselvan R, Nedunchezhiyan M. In: Fruits veg. Wastes. Ray R.C., editor. Springer Nature Singapore; Singapore: Composting and vermicomposting process: Relationship between microorganism and physicochemical parameters with special reference to tropical tuber crops. 2022;189–204.

Mardanluo S, Souri MK, Ahmadi M. Plant growth and fruit quality of two pepper cultivars under different potassium levels of nutrient solutions. J. Plant Nutr. 2018; 41:1604–1614.

DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2018.1463383

Mahmoud E, El-Kader NA, Robin P, Akkal-Corfini N, El-Rahman LA. Effects of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on cucumber yield and some soil properties. World J. Agric. Sci. 2009;5:408–414.


Olle M. Review: vermicompost, its importance and benefit in agriculture. Agraarteadus J. Agric. Sci. 2019;30:93–98.

DOI: 10.15159/JAS.19.19.

Naiji M, Souri MK. Nutritional value and mineral concentrations of sweet basil under organic compared to chemical fertilization. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus. 2018;17:167–175.

DOI: 10.24326/asphc..2.14

Ebrahimi M, Souri MK, Mousavi A, Sahebani N. Biochar and vermicompost improve growth and physiological traits of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under deficit irrigation. Chem. Biol. Technol. Agric. 2021;8:19.

DOI: 10.1186/s40538-021-00216-9

Zargar Shooshtari F, Souri MK, Hasandokht MR, Jari SK. Glycine mitigates fertilizer requirements of agricultural crops: Case study with cucumber as a high fertilizer demanding crop. Chem. Biol. Technol. Agric. 2020;7:19.

DOI: 10.1186/s40538-020-00185-5

Bangladesh Department of Forest. Bangladesh National Conservation Startegy, Department of Forest, Bangladesh, Dhaka; 2016.

Haque M, Hussain M, Hoque M. Effect of different mulches and planting beds on growth and yield of bitter gourd in coastal saline soils. Bangladesh J. Agric. Res. 2023;46:71–87.

DOI: 10.3329/bjar.v46i1.63315