Development of Cocoyam, Red Kidney Bean, and Mango-based Complementary Foods: Impact of Fermentation and Malting on Nutritional, Functional, Anti-nutrient, and Sensory Characteristics

Vachefon Heuvey Forwoukeh *

Centre for Food Technology and Research, CEFTER, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Dinnah Ahure

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Mkar, Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria.

I.G. Agbidye

Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aim: To evaluate the influence of fermentation and malting on the quality of cocoyam, red kidney beans and mango - based complementary foods.

Methodology: Flour was prepared from cocoyam, red kidney beans and mango. It was than blend as follows: Fermented cocoyam/ malted red kidney beans/ mango (FMM); Fermented cocoyam/ non- malted red kidney beans/ mango (FNMM); Non- fermented cocoyam/ malted red kidney beans/ mango (NFMM); Non- fermented cocoyam/ Non- malted red kidney beans/ mango (NFNMM). This ratio was arrived at, based on their protein content through material balancing to give 16 g protein/100 g. Blends were subjected to proximate, functional and anti-nutrient content analysis. More so, gruels were prepared from blends and sensory attributes determined. NESTLE CERELAC (CS) was used as external control for comparison.

Results: Fermentation and malting improve the nutritional and functional properties; protein varies from 16.01±1.00 (NFNMM) to 16.04±1.00% (FMM), fibre ranged from 3.44±0.05 (NFNMM) to 4.23±0.04 (NFMM), packed bulk density ranged from 0.86±0.02 (NFNMM) to 0.68±0.01 (FMM). Viscosity ranged from 1.32±0.03 (NFNMM) to 1.17±0.02 (FMM), fermentation and malting significantly (p<0.05) reduces bulk density and viscosity. Phytate varies from 16.88±0.02 mg/100 g (FMM) to 21.72±0.01 mg/100 g (NFNMM), oxalate varies from 3.23±0.02 mg/100 g (FMM) to 5.71±0.02 mg/100 g (NFNMM), fermentation and malting significantly (p<0.05) reduces phytate and oxalate content. In terms of overall acceptability samples FMM and NFMM showed no significantly different (p > 0.05) with NESTLE CERELAC,

Conclusion: Fermentation and malting have significant (P<0.05) impact on the proximate functional, anti-nutrient and sensory properties of cocoyam-Red kidney beans-Mango based formulated food products.

Keywords: Fermentation, germination, proximate, functional, preference

How to Cite

Forwoukeh, V. H., Ahure, D., & Agbidye, I. (2024). Development of Cocoyam, Red Kidney Bean, and Mango-based Complementary Foods: Impact of Fermentation and Malting on Nutritional, Functional, Anti-nutrient, and Sensory Characteristics. Asian Journal of Food Research and Nutrition, 3(3), 485–498. Retrieved from


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