Physicochemical, Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Syzygium malaccense Extracted with Different Solvents

M. Omojufehinsi *

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

I. Y. Longdet

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

C. D. Luka

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Underutilized plants are nutritionally rich and contain variety of phytochemicals which need to be explored for their contribution to the improvement of human health and economic value.

Aim: To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, nutrient, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of S. malaccense grown in Nigeria.

Methodology: Fruit weight, yield, pH and nutritional composition of S. malaccense fruit were investigated using standard analytical methods. The samples were extracted with different solvents in order to analyze the phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity. Different phytochemical assays were used to evaluate the polyphenolic contents of the fruit extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts were measured using 2,2-diphenyl‑1‑picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays.

Results: The different part of the fruit exhibited significant differences (p<0.05) in their physicochemical characteristics. The flesh has a significant higher weight (104.6±19.57g) than the peel (25.85±4.838). The yield of the peel extract (11.315%) was higher than that of the flesh (6.231%) despite the higher weight of the flesh. The peel showed significant (P<0.05) lower value of moisture and higher contents of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fibre, ash, dry matter and calorie than the flesh. The flesh had the highest concentration of minerals with Calcium as the predominant macro-element and Iron as the predominant trace mineral. The polyphenolic contents were higher in the peel. The phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin content of the acetone peel extract (10.917±0.01 mg GAE/g, 7.927±0.015 mg QE/g, 1.959±0.007 mg CE/g) was significantly (P <0.05) higher than other extracts while the aqueous flesh extract had the lowest values. All the solvent extracts showed great antioxidant activities with the acetone peel extract having the highest antioxidant activity based on DPPH and ethanol peel extract based on TAC assays with IC50 values of 133.339±1.87μg/ml and 31.189±6.55μg/ml, respectively. Polyphenolic contents were significantly correlated with antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: This study reveals that S. malaccense especially its peel contains abundant nutrients and polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity that may impart health benefits when consumed.

Keywords: Myrtaceae, Syzygium malaccense, metabolite, nutrition, peel, flesh, polyphenolics, antioxidant

How to Cite

Omojufehinsi , M., Longdet , I. Y., & Luka, C. D. (2023). Physicochemical, Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Syzygium malaccense Extracted with Different Solvents. Asian Journal of Food Research and Nutrition, 2(4), 397–411. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Shakya AK. Medicinal plants: Future source of new drugs. International Journal of Herbal medicine. 2016;4(4):59-64.

Block G, Patterson B, Subar A. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: A review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr cancer. 1992;18(1):1–29.

Islary A, Sarmah J, Basumatary S. Proximate composition, mineral content, phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant activities of a wild edible fruit (Grewia sapida Roxb. ex DC.) found in Assam of North-East India. Journal of Investigational Biochemistry. 2016;5(1):21-31.

Frauches NS, do Amaral TO, Diniz Largueza CB, Teodoro AJ. Brazilian Myrtaceae Fruits: A Review of Anticancer Proprieties. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2016;12(1): 1-15.

Pazzini AE, de Melo AM, Ribani RH. Bioactive potential, health benefits and application trends of Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple): A bibliometric review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2021;116:1155-1169.

Akinyemi O. Why Nigeria needs to increase Malay apple farming. The Sun Nigeria Online.

Accessed 1 July 2018. Available:

Morton JF, editor. Malay apple. Fruits of warm climates. Miami: Creative Resources Systems; 1987.

Accessed 8 May 2020. Available:

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A. Agroforestree Database: A tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. 2009. Accessed 6 May 2020. Available:

Nunes PC, Aquino JdS, Rockenbach, II, Stamford TLM. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr., & L.M. Perry]. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(6):1-11.

Batista ÂG, da Silva-Maia JK, Betim Cazarin CB, Biasoto ACT, Sawaya ACHF, Prado MA. et al. Red-jambo (Syzygium malaccense): Bioactive compounds in fruits and leaves. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2017;76:284-291.

Frauches NS, Montenegro J, Amaral T, Abreu JP, Laiber G, Junior, J. et al. Antiproliferative activity on human colon adenocarcinoma cells and In Vitro antioxidant effect of anthocyanin-rich extracts from peels of species of the Myrtaceae Family. Molecules. 2021;26:564.

Lim ASL, Rabeta MS. Proximate analysis, mineral content and antioxidant capacity of milk apple, malay apple and water apple. International Food Research Journal. 2013;20(2):673-679.

Ogundare CO. Phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of three different types of apples. International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews. 2014;3(1):67- 78.

Enidiok SE, Attah LE. Chemical composition in relation to the quality of wines produced from Nigerian Syzygium malaccensis and Eugenia owariensis apples. African Journal of Food, Agiculture, Nutrition and Development. 2020;10: 1-15

Yuniwati ED, Prihartini I. Production potential and product diversification to increase farmer’s business capacity of gondang manis rose apple (S. malaccense) in Jombang regency East Java. Adv Soc Sci Edu Humanities Res. 2018;231:559–62.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2000.

James CS. Analytical chemistry of foods. 1st ed. New York: Chapman and Hall Press; 1995.

FAO. Food energy-methods of analysis and conversion factors. FAO Food and Nutrition paper 77. Rome: Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations; 2003.

He X, Liu RH. Phytochemicals of apple peels: Isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2008;56: 9905-9910.

Harborne, JB. Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Springer (India) Private Limited; 1998.

Samatha T, Shyamsundarachary R, Srinivis P, Swamy, NR. Quantification of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in extracts of Oroxylum indicum L. Kurz Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2012;5:177-179.

Woisky R, Salatino A. Analysis of propolis: some parameters and procedures for chemical quality control. Journal of Apicultural Research. 1998;37:99-105.

Oyedemi SO, Bradley G, Afolayan AJ. In vitro and In vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Strychonos henningsii Gilg. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;4:70‑78.

Kibiti CM, Afolayan AJ. Preliminary phytochemical screening and biological activities of Bulbine abyssinica used in the folk medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015;2015: 617607.

Olugbami JO, Gbadegesin MA, Odunola OA. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens. Pharmacognosy Research. 2015;7:49‑56.

Costa RS, Oliveira IVM, Môro FV, Martins, ABG. Morphological aspects and influence of the seed size in the germination of wax jambu. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura. 2006;28:117–20.

Doshi P, Adsule P, Banerjee K. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity in grapevine parts and berries (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Kishmish Chornyi (Sharad Seedless) during maturation. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2006;41:1–9.

Radunić M, Špika MJ, Ban SG, Gadže J, Díaz-Pérez JC, MacLean D. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia. Food Chem. 2015;177:53–60.

Ekpete OA, Edori OS, Fubara EP. Proximate and Mineral Composition of Some Nigerian Fruits. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2013; 3(4):1447-1454.

Hassan LG, Muhammad MU, Umar KJ, Sokoto AM. Comparative study on the proximate and mineral contents of the seed and pulp of sugar apple (Annona squamosa). Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2008;16(2): 179-182.

Arvin KG, Tanmayee M, Malay B, Pallab K, Arnab S. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of selected actinorhizal fruits growing in the forests of Northeast India. Journal of Biosciences. 2013;8(4):797- 803.

Clerici MTPS, Carvalho–Silva LB. Nutritional bioactive compounds and technological aspects of minor fruits grown in Brazil. Food Research International. 2011;44:1658-1670.

TACO. Tabela Brasileira de composição de alimentos. Nepa-Unicamp: Campinas (Versão 2); 2006.

Bello MO, Falade OS, Adewusi SR, Olawole NO. Studies on the chemical compositions and anti-nutrients of some lesser known Nigerian fruits. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7: 3972 -3979.

Padovani RM, Amaya-Farfán J, Colugnati FAB, Domene SMA. Dietary reference intakes: aplicabilidade das tabelas em estudos nutricionais. Revista de Nutrição. 2006;19(6):741-760.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press; 2006.

World Health Organization. Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. WHO Technical Report Series. Published 2002.

Accessed 20 July, 2020. Available:https://

Vaudin A, Wambogo E, Moshfegh AJ, Sahyoun NR. Sodium and Potassium Intake, the Sodium to Potassium Ratio, and Associated Characteristics in Older Adults, NHANES 2011-2016. Journal of the academy of nutrition and dietetics. 2021;2021:1-14

Ghosh P, Pradhan RC, Mishra S, Patel AS, Kar A. Physicochemical and nutritional characterization of Jamun (Syzygium Cuminii). Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2017; 5(1): 25-35.

Jalili M, Azizkhani R. Lead toxicity resulting from chronic ingestion of opium. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2009; 10:244.

FAO/WHO. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series No. 837; 1993.

Weisheng F, Meng L, Zhiyou H, Jingke Z. Analytical Methods of Isolation and Identification. Phytochemicals in Human Health. 2019;1-27.

Sasikumar V, Kalaisezhiyen P. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various leaf extracts from Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry. 2014;3:150.

Eloff JN. Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants? J Ethnopharmacol 1998;60:1‑8.

Veermuthu D, Muniappan A, Savarimuthu I. Antimicrobial activity of some ethno-medicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamilnadu, India. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2006;6:35.

Arunachalam K, Parimelazhagan T. Evaluation of Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Nutritional Composition of Cordia evolutior (Clarke) Gamble. Int Journal of Food Properties. 2014;17:226-238.

Gliszczynska-Swiglo A, Kahuzewicz A, Lemanska K, Knaflewski M, Tyrakowska B. The effect of solar radiation on the flavonol content in broccoli inflorescence. Food Chemistry. 2007;100(1):241-245.

Reynertson KA, Yang H, Jiang B, Basile MJ, Kennelly EJ. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits. Food Chemistry. 2008;109(4):883-890.

Sartaj A, Tariq M, Kashif Sarfraz A, Amjed A, Azhar H. Some compositional and biochemical attributes of jaman fruit (Syzygium cumini L.) from Potowar region of Pakistan. Res in Pharmacy. 2013;3(5):1-9.

Guo C, Yang J, Wei J, Li Y, Xu J, JiangY. Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits as determined by FRAP assay. Nutrition Research. 2003;23:1719–1726.

Serafini M, Bellocco R, Wolk A, Ekstrom AM. Total antioxidant potential of fruit and vegetables and risk of gastric cancer. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:985-999.

Ramadan MF, Moersel JT. Impact of enzymatic treatment on chemical composition, physicochemical properties and radical scavenging activity of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2007;87:452-460.

Benherlal PS, Arumughan C. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini fruit. Journal of Food Science and Agriculture. 2007;87:2560-2569.

Banerjee A, Dasgupta N, Bratati D. In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit. Food Chemistry. 2005;90:727-733.

Koksal E, Bursal E, Dikici E. Antioxidant activity of Melissa officinalis leaves. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011;5:217-222.

Do QD, Angkawijaya AE, Tran-Nguyen PL, Huynh LH, Soetaredjo FE, Ismadji S, Ju Y. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatic. Journal of food and drug analysis. 2014;22:296-302.

Alothman M, Bhat R, Karim AA. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents. Food Chemistry. 2009;115:785-788.

Ohikhena FU, Wintola OA, Afolayan AJ. Quantitative phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the mistletoe, Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle extracted with different solvents. Pharmacognosy Research. 2018;10: 16-23.