Effect of Adding Beetroot Powder on Chemical, Nutritional, Rheological, and Organoleptic Properties of Frozen Yogurt

Full Article PDF Review History

Published: 16-09-2023

Page: 511-521

M. Y. El-Hawary *

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural, Tanta University, Egypt.

W. A. Ragab

Department of Dairy Research, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Abd El-Baset O. M.

Department of Dairy Research, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Frozen yogurt is a popular and healthy alternative to traditional ice cream due to its lower fat content and probiotic benefits. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in incorporating various natural ingredients into frozen yogurt to enhance its nutritional value and sensory appeal. This research paper aims to investigate the effects of beetroot powder on the nutritional and sensory qualities of frozen yogurt, and it will provide an overview of the research problem, define the objectives of the study, and highlight the significance of the results in the context of the frozen yogurt industry, by exploring the effect of these ingredients on frozen yogurt, and the contribution to Developing innovative and nutritious frozen yogurt products that meet the diverse preferences and nutritional needs of consumers. Beetroot powder was added to frozen yogurt in different proportions (1%, 3%, 5% and 7%). Beetroot powder was chosen based on its potential health benefits, unique flavours, and bright colours. Overall, the addition of beetroot powder to frozen yogurt has the potential to enhance its nutritional value and sensory appeal, and the results indicate that these powders have the potential to improve the overall quality of frozen yogurt. Among the main nutritional benefits highlighted in this study is the significant increase in iron content in frozen yogurt, its benefits in improving immune system function, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as its high content of dietary fibre. Of beetroot powder. This is an important finding as dietary fibre is known to have various health benefits, including improved digestion and reduced risk of chronic disease. In addition, beetroot powder has been found to have good moisturizing properties, which can be useful in the production of frozen yogurt. These results indicate that adding beetroot powder to frozen yogurt can not only improve its nutritional profile, but also contribute to its sensory properties by enhancing mouth texture and sensation, producing frozen yogurt fortified with nutrients low or absent in dairy products including some Essential dairy, such as vitamins, antioxidants, trace elements, and digestible fibre. According to the results, beetroot powder 5% is recommended as the best-frozen yogurt additive which can be offered to consumers as a fresh, high quality and marketable product.

Keywords: Beetroot, beta vulgaris, powder, frozen yogurt, microbiological, nutritional properties

How to Cite

El-Hawary, M. Y., Ragab, W. A., & Abd El-Baset O. M. (2023). Effect of Adding Beetroot Powder on Chemical, Nutritional, Rheological, and Organoleptic Properties of Frozen Yogurt . Asian Journal of Food Research and Nutrition, 2(4), 511–521. Retrieved from https://journalajfrn.com/index.php/AJFRN/article/view/74


Download data is not yet available.


Villalva FJ, Cravero Bruneri AP, Vinderola G, Goncalvez de Oliveira E, Paz NF, Ramón AN. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food. Food Science and Technology. 2017;37:456-461.‏

Gebreyowhans S, Lu J, Zhang S, Pang X, Lv J. Dietary en-richment of milk and dairy products with n-3 fatty acids: A review. International Dairy Journal. 2019;97:158–166.

McCain HR, Kaliappan S, Drake MA. Invited review: Sugar reduction in dairy products. Journal of Dairy Science. 2018;101(10):8619–8640.

Verruck S, Balthazar CF, Rocha RS, Silva R, Esmerino EA, Pimentel TC, Freitas MQ, Silva M C, da Cruz AG, Prudencio ES. Chapter Three - Dairy foods and positive impact on the consumer's health. In F. Toldrá (Ed.), Advances in food and nutrition research. 2019;95–164. Academic Press.

Salehi F, Aghajanzadeh S. Effect of dried fruits and vege-tables powder on cakes quality: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2020;95:162– 17.

Salehi F, Satorabi M. Influence of infrared drying on drying kinetics of apple slices coated with basil seed and xanthan gums. International Journal of Fruit Science. 2021;21(1):519–527.

Satorabi M, Salehi F, Rasouli M. The influence of xanthan and balangu seed gums coats on the kinetics of infrared drying of apricot slices: GA-ANN and ANFIS modeling. International Journal of Fruit Science. 2021;21(1):468–480.

Issar K, Sharma PC, Gupta A. Utilization of apple pomace in the preparation of fiber-enriched acidophilus yoghurt. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2017;41(4):e13098.

Caleja C, Barros L, Antonio AL, Carocho M, Oliveira MBPP, Ferreira ICFR. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives. Food Chemistry. 2016;210:262–268. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.114.

Carocho M, Morales P, Ferreira ICFR. Natural food addi-tives: Quo vadis? Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2015;45(2):284–295. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2015.06.007.

Hashemi Gahruie H, Eskandari MH, Mesbahi G, Hanifpour MA. Scientific and technical aspects of yogurt fortification: A re-view. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2015;4(1):1– 8.

Salehi F. Rheological and physical properties and quality of the new formulation of apple cake with wild sage seed gum (Salvia macrosiphon). Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2017;11(4):2006–2012.

Karaaslan M, Ozden M, Vardin H, Turkoglu H. Phenolic fortification of yogurt using grape and callus extracts. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2011; 44(4):1065–1072.

Salehi F. Physicochemical characteristics and rheological be-haviour of some fruit juices and their concentrates. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2020;14(5):2472–2488.

Slavin JL, Lloyd B. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Advances in nutrition. 2012;3(4): 506-516.‏

Pant A, Lee AY, Karyappa R, Lee CP, An J, Hashimoto M, Zhang Y. 3D food printing of fresh vegetables using food hydrocolloids for dysphagic patients. Food Hydrocolloids. 2021:114, 106546.‏

Yashwant K. Beetroot: A super food. International Journal of Engineering Studies and Technical Approach. 2015;1(3):20-26.‏

Punia Bangar S, Singh A, Chaudhary V, Sharma N, Lorenzo JM. Beetroot as a novel ingredient for its versatile food applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2022;1-25.‏

Mandale NM, Attkan AK, Kumar S, Kumar N. Drying kinetics and quality assessment of refractance window dried beetroot. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2023;e14332.‏

Azeredo HM. Betalains: properties, sources, applications, and stability–a review. International journal of food science & technology. 2009;44(12):2365-2376.‏

Martínez L, Cilla I, Beltrán JA, Roncalés P. Comparative effect of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus), red beet root (Beta vulgaris) and betanin (E‐162) on colour and consumer acceptability of fresh pork sausages packaged in a modified atmosphere. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2006;86(4):500-508.‏

Kumar S, Ahlawat W, Kumar R, Dilbaghi N. Graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold as elite nanomaterials for fabrication of biosensors for healthcare. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2015;70:498-503.‏

Sadowska-Bartosz I, Bartosz G. Biological properties and applications of betalains. Molecules. 2021;26(9):2520.‏

Sarker U, Lin YP, Oba S, Yoshioka Y, Hoshikawa K. Prospects and potentials of underutilized leafy Amaranths as vegetable use for health-promotion. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2022;182:104-123.‏

Singh B, Hathan BS. Chemical composition, functional properties, and processing of beetroot-a review. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2014;5:679- 684.

Sruthi PD, Anoohya PN, Vasu AT, Latha BS, Chavali M. Portrayal of red pigments extracted from red beet (Beta vulgaris, L.) and its potential uses as antioxidant and natural food colourants. VFSTR Journal of STEM. 2014;2(1):24-32.

Magouz OFI. A study on fortification of zabady with iron using some natural sources (Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. Thesis, Fac. Agric., Kafr El-Sheikh Univ., Egypt); 2012.

Gooda SR, Huglin MB. Preferential adsorption and viscometric behaviour of poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulphonamide) in formamide/water mixtures. European polymer journal. 1993;29(2-3):365-369.‏

AOAC, Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists 19th ed., Published by AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA; 2012.

Winton AL. ″Analysis of Foods″. 3rd Ed. p: 6, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York; 1958.

Arbuckle WS. Ice Cream. Springer, New York, USA; 2013.

Mansour AI, Ahmed MA, Elfaruk, M S, Alsaleem KA, Hammam AR, El‐Derwy YM. A novel process to improve the characteristics of low‐fat ice cream using date fiber powder. Food Science & Nutrition. 2021;9(6):2836-2842.‏

Marshall RT, Goff HD, Hartel RW. ″Ice cream.″ 6th ed. Aspen Publishers, New York, USA; 2003.

Abdelazez A, Muhammad Z, Zhang Q, Zhu Z, Abdelmotaal H, Sami R, Meng X. Production of a functional frozen yoghurt fortified with Bifidobacterium spp. Journal of BioMed Research International, 2017: 1-10.BioMed Res. Int. 2017;6438528. Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6438528.

Guner A, Ardic M, Keles A, Dogruer Y. "Production of yoghurt ice cream at different acidity". International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2007; 42:948–952.

American Public Health Association Standards methods for the examination of dairy products. 17thed., H. Michael Wehr and Joseph F. Frank, editors. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA. APHA; 2004.

Elliker PR, Anderson AW, Hannesson G. An agar culture medium for lactic acid streptococci and lactobacilli. Journal of Dairy Science. 1956;39(11):1611-1612.‏

De Souza CH, Buriti FC, Behrens JH, Saad SM. Sensory evaluation of probiotic Minas fresh cheese with Lactobacillus acidophilus added solely or in co‐culture with a thermophilic starter culture. International journal of food science & technology. 2008;43(5):871-877.‏

BSI. Determination of Enterobacteriaceae in microbiological examination of food and animal feeding stuffs. BSI 5763, British Standards Institution, London, U.K; 1993.

Nelson JA, Trout GM. ″Judging of Dairy Products.″ 4th Ed. INC Westport, Academic Press. 1981:345-567.

Steel GG, Peckham MJ. Exploitable mechanisms in combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy: the concept of additivity. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics. 1979; 5(1):85-91.‏

Foucquier J, Guedj M. Analysis of drug combinations: current methodological landscape. Pharmacology research & perspectives. 2015;3(3):e00149.‏

Ateteallah H, Abd-Elkarim N, Hassan NA. Effect of Adding Beetroot Juice and Carrot Pulps on Rheological, Chemical, Nutritional and Organoleptic Properties of Ice Cream. Journal of Food and Dairy Sciences. 2019;10(6):175-179.‏

Temiz H, YeşilSu AF. Effect of pekmez addition on the physical, chemical, and sensory properties of ice cream. Czech journal of food sciences. 2010;28(6):538-546.‏

El-Bakry M, Abraham J, Cerda A, Barrena R, Ponsá S, Gea T, Sánchez A. From wastes to high value added products: novel aspects of SSF in the production of enzymes. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;45(18):1999-2042.‏

Patel AS, Jana AH, Aparnathi KD, Pinto SV. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream. Journal of food science and technology. 2010;47:582-585.‏

Fazaeli M, Emam-Djomeh Z, Yarmand MS. Influence of black mulberry juice addition and spray drying conditions on some physical properties of ice cream powder. International Journal of Food Engineering. 2016;12(3):277-285.‏

Hamad MNF, Ismail MM, Elraghy EM. Effect of fortification with guava pulp on some properties of bio-Rayeb milk made from goat’s milk. Acta Sci. Nutri. Health. 2017;1:9-20.‏

Desouky MM. Effect of using cactus pear pulp on the properties of goats’ milk bioyoghurt drinks. Egypt. J. Food Sci. 2018;46:25-41.

Ali ARM. Incorporating of some natural and bio-materials in cheese making to improve their functional characteristics (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Agric., Moshtohor, Benha Univ., Egypt); 2018.

El-Alfy MB, El-Nagar GF, Abd El-Aty AM, Essawy EA, Hammad MNA. Making of fortified yoghurt with colostrum. Egypt. J. Appl. Sci. 2018;33(3):61-75.‏

Abdel-Galeele AA, Sulieman AM, Abd El-Wahed EM, Khalifa SA. Utilization of sebestan plum fruit nectar (Cordiadichotomaforst) in the manufacture of flavourednutraceutical yoghurt drink. Zagazig J. Agric. Res. 2013;40:1113-1119.‏

Güler-Akın MB, Ferliarslan I, Akın MS. Apricot probiotic drinking yoghurt supplied with inulin and oat fiber. Advances in Microbiology. 2016;6(14):999-1009.

Ismail E. Characterization and genetic improvement of lactobacilli for application in probiotic dairy products (Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. Agric. &Nutr. Sci., Christian Albrecht’s Univ., Kiel, Germany; 2007.


Das A, Seth R. Chemical compositional analysis and physical attributes of curd fortified with bovine colostrum whey powder. Int. J. Chem. Stud. 2017;5:334–338.