Cost Evaluation of Bread Production from Composite of Wheat Flour and Corn Flour

Tijesu Joshua Jesulagba

Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, P.M.B 65, Niger State. Nigeria.

Dallacoasta Andrea *

Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, P.M.B 65, Niger State. Nigeria.

Zakariyah Abdullahi Abiodun

Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, P.M.B 65, Niger State. Nigeria.

Obros Ogheneovo

Department of Biochemistry, Delta State University Abraka, P.M.B 001, Delta State, Nigeria.

Abdullahi Abdulsalam

Department of Environmental Health and Safety, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, Niger Republic.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Composite bread is a baked product that incorporates a mixture of flours containing high starch and protein content, such as wheat and corn flour, to enhance its nutritional value. This study aimed to develop and assess composite bread using various ratios of wheat and corn flour, following standard proportions. Four formulations of composite bread were created, substituting different levels of corn flour, while a 100% wheat bread was used as a control sample. Proximate composition analysis of the wheat and corn flour was performed in the laboratory. The bread was prepared using the straight dough method, and sensory evaluation was conducted to determine consumer acceptability. Results indicated that the sample with a ratio of 90% wheat flour and 10% corn flour (sample B) exhibited the highest overall acceptability, closely resembling the 100% whole wheat bread. Furthermore, sample C, with a ratio of 80% wheat flour and 20% corn flour, could be more acceptable if supplemented with additional ingredients such as fats, natural and chemical improvers, emulsifiers, and flavors. Incorporating 20% corn flour in the bread formulation proved to be cost-effective, leading to a 20% reduction in wheat importation, equivalent to 1.2 million metric tonnes of imported wheat.

Keywords: Composite bread, corn flour, sensory evaluation, wheat flour

How to Cite

Jesulagba, T. J., Andrea, D., Abiodun, Z. A., Ogheneovo, O., & Abdulsalam, A. (2024). Cost Evaluation of Bread Production from Composite of Wheat Flour and Corn Flour. Asian Journal of Food Research and Nutrition, 3(1), 190–201. Retrieved from


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