Chemical Composition, Functional and Pasting Properties of Sprouted Maize (Zea mays)-Hildegardia barteri (Kpaakpa)- Blanched Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Composite Flour

Josephat Ikechukwu Anyadioha *

Department of Food Science and Technology, Madonna University Nigeria, Akpugo Campus, Enugu, Nigeria.

Roseline Nwabugo Attaugwu

Department of Food, Nutrition and Home Science, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria.

John Ikechukwu Eze

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The need to develop nutritious food products- bakery and pastry products has attracted the attention of food and nutrition scientists in recent time. This study, therefore, is aimed at investigating the chemical, functional, and pasting properties of non-wheat-based composite flour. The dried Hildegardia barteri and maize seeds were cleaned, sorted, soaked, germinated, dried, and separately milled into flour. Matured unripe plantain was washed, peeled, edible portion weighed, sliced, blanched dried, and milled into flour. A mixture design was used to blend the Hildegardia barteri flour into seven composite blends with maize and plantain flours respectively (Minitab software version 14.0) and evaluated for chemical, functional, and pasting properties. The results of the proximate composition showed: moisture (8.67 -9.96%), protein (2.91-18.58%), fat (2.42 - 29.73%), ash (1.88 - 4.67%), crude fiber (1.8-2.87%) and carbohydrate (38.2 - 80.24%) and energy (354-494 KJ/100 g). Protein, fat, moisture, ash, and crude fiber increased with increasing levels of Hildegardia barteri inclusion while carbohydrates decreased significantly (p≤0.05) with increased levels of Hildegardia barteri. Similarly, functional properties- Water Absorption capacity, Bulk Density, Swelling index, and Oil Absorption Capacity of the blends decreased with increased Hildegardia barteri flour addition while emulsifying capacity increased. Peak, final, Trough, set back and breakdown viscosities of the composite flours were reduced with the increased addition of Hildegardia barteri flour while pasting time and pasting temperature increased. The reverse was the case when maize and plantain flours were increased in the blends. Germinated maize-Hildegardia barteri-blanched plantain flour exhibited good nutritional, functional, and pasting characteristics and so could be explored in food formulations like soups, cookies, pastries, biscuits, etc.

Keywords: Chemical composition, functional, pasting properties, Hildegardia barteri, composite flour

How to Cite

Anyadioha, J. I., Attaugwu, R. N., & Eze, J. I. (2023). Chemical Composition, Functional and Pasting Properties of Sprouted Maize (Zea mays)-Hildegardia barteri (Kpaakpa)- Blanched Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Composite Flour. Asian Journal of Food Research and Nutrition, 2(4), 340–350. Retrieved from


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