Antibacterial Effect of Awolowo Weed (Chromolenaodorata) Extract on Salmonella typhii Isolated from Typhoid Patients

Ejimofor Chiamaka Frances

Department of Biological Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Nwakoby Nnamdi Enoch

Department of Biological Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Oledibe Odira Johnson

Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Mbaukwu Onyinye Ann *

Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Afam-Ezeaku Chikaodili Eziamaka

Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

In this study, it was determined what phytochemical components and antibacterial properties Chromolena dorata leaves had against Salmonella species that had been isolated from typhoid patients. The antibacterial test of the leaf extracts against Salmonella Typhi was conducted after phytochemical screening. Chromolena odorata samples were extracted using methanol, ethanol, and water. The extracts were then subjected to normal phytochemical screening procedures.  The agar well diffusion technique was used to test the extracts' antibacterial activity against Salmonella Typhi at doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 mg/mL. Results revealed seven secondary plant metabolites, including cardiac glycosides, steroid, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, and saponins. When used against Salmonella typhi, the ethanol and aqueous extracts shown antibacterial activity with a zone width of inhibition of 14 mm and 15mm respecively at a dosage of 50 mg/mL. The zone width of inhibition for the ethanol extracts was 23 mm at 250 mg/mL and 27 mm at 500 mg/mL, respectively. At 500 mg/mL, three extracts showed the greatest zone width of inhibition, but the ethanol extract and the aqueous extract showed the least inhibition at 100 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activity of the methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts against Salmonella typhi were statistically significant at (P.05). For methanol, ethanol, aqueous extracts, and amoxicillin (control), the lowest inhibitory concentration of the extracts was 250, 200, and 100 mg/mL, respectively. As a result, Chromolena odorata may be used for research purposes, and plant extracts work synergistically with other therapeutic plants.

Keywords: Antibacterial effects, Chromolena odorata leaves extract, Salmonella typhii


How to Cite

Frances , E. C., Enoch , N. N., Johnson , O. O., Ann , M. O., & Eziamaka , A.-E. C. (2023). Antibacterial Effect of Awolowo Weed (Chromolenaodorata) Extract on Salmonella typhii Isolated from Typhoid Patients. Asian Journal of Food Research and Nutrition, 2(4), 430–440. Retrieved from https://journalajfrn.com/index.php/AJFRN/article/view/67

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