Effects of Acha-Cowpea-Carrot Based Couscous on the Hematological and Liver profile of Wistar Rat
Issue: 2023 - Volume 2 [Issue 4]
J. A. Ayo *
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria and Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria.
M. O. Ojo
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
V. I. Ayo
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria and Department of Bio-chemistry, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria.
J. A, Ankeli
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria.
A. C. Vongfa
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The effects of acha-cowpea-carrot based couscous on the Hematological and Liver profile of Albino Rats was investigated. Couscous was prepared from acha, cowpea and carrot flour blends at ratios of 100:0:0 (C1); 90:5:5 (F1); 80:10:10(F3); 75:15:10(F4); 70:15:15(F5); and 50:25:25 (F8), and fed to Wister rat for 42 days. The hematological and biomarker indices of wistar rat were studied. Biological assay showed high protein quality distortion of the liver. The white blood cell and lymphocytes, decreased from 2.82 – 1.75 % and 75.88 – 40.03 % respectively, with increase in added cowpea and carrot flours. There was a significant increase in (p<0.05) in the neutrophils, red blood cell, packed cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet count, and hemoglobin with increase in added cowpea and carrot flours. The glycaemic level for samples F1 F3, F4, F5 and F8 which ranged between 44.30-62.45 were lower compared with the 65.50 observed for control. However, all the tested samples are in the intermediate (medium) glycaemic level. The total protein and low density lipoprotein, decreased from 100.80 – 70.84 and 17.06 – 8.06 respectively, while the aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphate, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), and HDL (high density lipoprotein) increased from 40.74 – 53.33, 105.01 – 123.53, 50.99 – 62.79, 53.78 – 69.14 and 47.57 – 56.89 respectively with increase in added cowpea and carrot flours. This study suggests that relative increase in the level of cowpea and carrot could improve the immune system and hence the health status of the consumers.
Keywords: Acha-cowpea-carrot, couscous, hematological, liver profile, Wistar rat
How to Cite
UNESCO. Le Couscous Entre au Patrimoine Culturel Immatériel de l’UNESCO; 2020. Available: https://news.un.org/fr/story/2020/12/1084812 (accessed on 5, June 2023).
Coskun M. Involvement of JAK/STAT signaling in the pathogenesis of inflamentary bowels dishes.Pharmocol. Res. 2013;76:1-8
Jideani IA, Takeda Y, Hizukuri S. Structures and physico-chemical properties of starches from Acha (Digitariaexilis), Iburu (Digitaria iburua), and Tamba(Eleusine coracana). Cereal Chemistry. 1999;73:677-685.
Pindar H, Kamai N, Kanampiu F, Kamara AY. Value addition to grain legume processing of cowpea, groundnut, and soybean to smallholder farmers in Borno State. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kano, Nigeria. 2018;27.
Jideani IA. Traditional and possible technological uses of Digitaria exilis
(Acha) and Digitaria iburua. A review plants food. Human Nutrition. 1999;54:363 –
Dias JS. Major classes of phyto-nutriceuticals in vegetables and health benefits: A review. Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics. 2012;1:31-62.
Jenkins DG, Mitra A, Gupta N, Shaw JD. Are financial incentives related to performance? A Meta- Analytic Review of Empirical Research; 1998.
Kaur H, Ganguli D, Bachhawt AK. Glutathine degradation of the althructone pathway (SNG) pathway in saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 2013;287(12):8920-8931.
Ayo JA, Ayo VA. Poopola C, Omosebi M, Joseph M(2014). Production and evaluation of malted soyabean – Acha composite flour bread and biscuits. African Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;5(1):21-28.
Ayo JA, Adedeji OA, Ishayo G. Phytochemical composition and Functional properties of flour produced from two varieties of tigernuut FUW Trends in Science & Technology Journal. 2016; 1(1):261-266.
Ayo JA, Adedeji EO, Okpasu AA. Phytochemical, oligosaccharides, in-vitro starch/protein digestibility and elemental composition of Acha-moringa flour blend. Trends in Science & Technology Journal. 2018;3(1):65–72.
Olapade AA, Aworh OC, Oluwole OB. Quality attributes of biscuit from acha (Digitariaexilis) flour supplemented with cowpea (VignaUnguiculata) flour. African Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012;2:198-203.
Young JR, Norman RH, Edwin GB, Patric JO. Coronary artery disease in peripheral vascular patients.Annals of surgery. 1984;199(2):223.
Wolever MS, Katzman-Relle RD, Jenkins LA, Vuksan V, Josse RG, Jenkins JA. Glycemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes. J. Nutrition Research. 1994;14 (5):651-669
Isaac IJ, Abah G, Apan B, Ekache IU. Hematological properties of different breeds and series of rabbits.Proceeding of the 18th Annual reference of Nigerian Society of Animal Science. 2013;24-27.
Aro SO. Akanmogun and red blood cell osmotic stability of pigs feed graded levels of fermented cassava peel based diets. Proc of the 17th Annual conf. of Anim Sci. 2013;74-77.
Rogers BA, Hanna ES, Paterso DL. Escherichia coli 0256-ST131: A pandemic, multiresistant, community-associated strain. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2011;66(1): 1-14.
Paliwal, Sundaram J, Mitragotri S. Induction of cancer-specific cytotoxicity towards human prostate and skin cells using quercetin and ultrasound. British Journal of Cancer. 2005;92(3)499-502.
Aller R, De Luis DA, Izaola O, Conde R, Sagrado MG, Primo D, Fuente BD, Gonzalez J. Effects of a probiotic on liver aminotransferases in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases patients: A double blind randomized clinical trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15(9):1090-5.
Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: Physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2002;8;287(18):2414-23.
Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Taylor RH, Barkar H, Fielden H, Baldwin J M, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL, Goff DV. Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34(3):362-6.
Liu M, Parker LL, Wadzinski BE, Shieh BH. Reversible phosphorylation of the signal transduction complex in Drosophila photoreception. J. Biol. Chem. 2000;274(16):12194- 12199.
Ford ES, Liu S. Glycemic Index and serum High-Density Liproprotein, Cholesterol Concentration among US adult. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:572-576
Liu Y, Maison T. Effects of field peas in diets for nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2001;92:4466-4477
Jenkins JA, Kendall WC, Augustine SA, Franceschi S, Hamidi M, Marchie A, Axelen M. Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J. Clin. Nutr. 2002;76(1):266S-73S
FAO/UN.The state of food and agriculture, rural non-farm income in developing countries. J. FAO Agriculture Series. 1998;31(1)371.
Bjock I, Liljeberg H. Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in health subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur. J. Clin Nutr. 1998;52(5):368-71.
Wolever TM, Spadotora P, Eshurs H. Interaction between colonic acetate and propionatein humans. American Journal of Animal Nutrition. 1999;53:681-687.
Akpapunam MA, Markakis P. Physicochemical and nutritional aspects of cowpea flour. J. Food Sci. 1981;46:972.
Agnieszka W, Moscicki L, Tomasz O, Combrzynsk M, Marcin M. The effect of fiber addition on the extrusion-cooking stability and quality of enriched corn snacks. Energetyki Rolnktwa. 2014;14(3): 225-229.
Anon J, Withange KS, Abeysinghe DC, Dharmadasa RM. Variation of phytochemical content and Antioxidant capacity of domesticated and Non-domesticated Momordica charantia L. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2006;6(4):140-143.
Aviara NA, Kawuyo UA, Okolo DC. Physical properties of two acha varieties as a function of moisture content. Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment. 2017;13(5):555-566.
Badwalk LS, Borch PK, Das A. Influence of germination on nutritional composition, antioxidant activities total phenolic and microbial of bamboo shoo shoot. Food Science and Tech Res. 2012;20:225-262.
Bjock l, Maria O, Niklas J, GAO X, Trjkovski V. Changes in antioxidant effects and their relationship to phytonutrients in fruits of sea buckthorn during maturation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000;48(5)”1485-1490.
Bouret SG, Gorski JN, Patterson MC, Chen S, Barry EL, Simerly RB. Hypothalamic Neural Projections are Permanently Disrupted in Diet-Induced Obese Rats. J. Cell Metabolism. 2007;7(2):179-185
Brain-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colaguiri S. Low-glycemic index diet in the management of dialets. J. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(8):2261-2267
Cuntes JR, Deborah JC, Sinuff T, Whith DB, Hill N, Keenon SP, Benditt JO, Kaemare KR, Kirchoff KT, Leoy M. Poninoasion position pressure ventilation in critical and pollination core settings: understanding the goal of therepy. Crit Med. 2007;3:932-939.
FAO/WHO. Food consumtion and exposur assessment of chemicals: report of a (FAO/WHO) consultation, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO/FSF/FOS/ 97. 1997; 569.
Fartamter B, Abadollahi M, Kaabinojadan S, Heshmat R. Sub chronic toxicity study of a novel herbal based formulation (semill) 0n dogs. Daru Journal of Pharm. Sci. 2008;16(1): 15-19.
Ferreira ICFR, Martins N, Barros L. Phenolic compounds and its bioavailability: In vitro bioactive compounds or health promoters? Advances in Food Nutrition Reserve. 2017;82:1–44.
Jenkirs KJ, Correa A, Feinstein JA, Loreso B, Amy EB, Danols SR, Elixson M, Wornes CA. Non-inherited risks factors and congested cardiovascular defects: Current Knowledge. Circulation. 2007;25:2995-3014
Joushua ZP, Mariam IS, Goje EA. Suleiman MM, Dalhatu RY. Formulation and evaluation of maize (Zea mays) fortified with carrot (Daucus dacota) powder. Science World Journal. 2021; 16(3):390-396.
Manson JE, Coldtz GA, Salmeron J, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non - insulin – dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997;12;277(6):472-7
Mendosa L, Adarsh K, Blanche F, DeVane CL, Pual GJ. Sertraline in diabetic neuropathy: Response Biology. J. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2000;62(3):461-462
Palermo M, Pellegrini N, Fogliano V. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture. 2014;94:1057–1070.
Pellegrini N, Agostoni C. Nutritional aspects of gluten-free products. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture. 2015;95: 2380–2385.
Pérez S, Oparinde A, Birol E, Gonzalez C, Zeller M. Consumer acceptance of an iron bean variety in Northwest Guatemala: The role of information and repeated messaging. Agricultural and Food Economics. 2018;6(14):2 –23.
Pour NK, Anupama E, Dhara S, Farokh RZ. Characterization of plants growth promoting traits of Acinetobacter species isolated from rhizosphere of Pennis ctumglaucum. J. Microbial Biotechnol. 2011;21(6):556-566
Thepa BR, Walk A. Hoer function tests and their interpretation. Indian Journpediatr. 2007;7:663-671.