Chemical Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Sweet Orange Pulp-Pineapple Pomace-wheat Flour Blend Breads

Ayo J. A. *

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020, Wukari, Nigeria.

Orafa P.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020, Wukari, Nigeria.

Odudu J. H.

Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

James P. B.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Wukari, PMB 1020, Wukari, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The chemical, physical and sensory properties of wheat bread supplemented with orange-pineapple pomace were studied. The orange pulp flour and pineapple pomace were produced from fresh orange and pineapple and were mixed at ratio 1:1 to produce orange-pineapple pomace flour (OPPF) blend. The OPPF was substituted into wheat flour at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% to produce orange-pineapple -wheat flour (OPPWF) blends and 100 % wheat flour as the control. The OPPWF blends with the other ingredients [yeast(2%), sugar(7%), fat(3.5%) and salt(1%)] were mixed and fermented for 2hrs, kneaded, molded and baked at 160oC to produce OPPWF blend bread. The chemical composition (phytochemical, mineral, vitamins), physical and sensory properties of the blend breads were determined using standard laboratory methods. The flavonoid, phenol, potassium, magnesium   and vtamin A increased from 65.61 to 80.73 and 511.24 to 571.24, 76.93 to 188.85 and 37.345 to 39.49, 0.36 to 0.43mg/100g, respectively, with increase in added OPPF.  The average mean scores of the taste, color, odor, texture, and general acceptability of the blend breads ranged from 7.95 – 6.85, 7.95 – 6.96, 7.95 – 6.50, 8.55 – 6.85 and 8.55 – 7.30 with increase in OPPF respectively. However the loaf weight, loaf volume and loaf volume index decreased from 176.00 to 149.67g, 650 to 200.00 cm3/100g and 3.69 to 1.34, respectively with increase in the added OPPF (0 to 25%). The OPPWF blend breads were generally acceptable at respect to all assessed parameters or quality but most preferred at 20% added OPPF. The incorporation of OPPF into wheat flour had positive significant effects p= 0.05 on the chemical composition and sensory property but negative on the physical quality of blend bread.

Keywords: Sweet orange, pineapple pomace, wheat, quality

How to Cite

Ayo J. A., Orafa P., Odudu J. H., & James P. B. (2023). Chemical Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Sweet Orange Pulp-Pineapple Pomace-wheat Flour Blend Breads. Asian Journal of Food Research and Nutrition, 2(4), 695–707. Retrieved from


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